The influence of predators on prey species was expressed as the sum of the field metabolic rate (sFMR) of all potential avian and mammalian predators of hares present in a hunting lease during the year before the collection of the harvested hares. We assigned each predator to a specific predator type (i.e., all birds, Pelecaniformes, mammal omnivores, and mammal carnivores) based on Nagy et al. ( 1999 ) (Appendix S6). We then calculated the average of the lower and higher limit of the body weight for each predator species (BWavg; birds: Del Hoyo et al., 1992 ; Del Hoyo et al., 1994 ; Del Hoyo et al., 1996 ; Del Hoyo et al., 1999 ; Del Hoyo et al., 2009 ; mammals: Lange et al., 2003 ). ( 1999 ) to calculate field metabolic rate (FMRBWavg) for each predator species (per Equation 1). Finally, for birds, we calculated the proportion of the year each species was resident in the Netherlands, as many birds migrate toward southern latitudes in winter (Vogelbescherming, 2017 ).
dos.step three.step one Model examined
Basic, we investigated the fresh correlation within sum of the latest predator industry metabolic process (sFMR) additionally the threat of hunting mortality given that predictor variables plus the body updates list due to the fact response changeable using a linear combined model (LMM) for the Roentgen (bundle lme4 version 1.1-12; Bates ainsi que al., 2015 ; letter = 66). Read more